Mangosteen Fruit Concentrate and Mangosteen Pericarp Extract
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) consists of a white, fleshy fruit surrounded by an outer purple rind also called pericarp. The fruit and especially the pericarp are rich in xanthones. Xanthones are a class of active phytochemicals. Several xanthones have specifically been isolated from mangosteen with mangostin being one of the most studied. However, many xanthones (40+) have been elucidated and isolated from mangosteen.
Mangosteen fruit, rind, leaves and roots have a history of use in Singapore, India, China and several other oriental countries. The historical uses include using the rind to overcome dysentery, diarrhea, cystitis and gonorrhea. Topical use for wounds and infections is also noted.
Studies show that mangosteen and the xanthones in the fruit have antibacterial and antifungal action. An active compound of mangosteen, mangostin, provides antiseptic, bactericide and fungicide properties. Pericarp extracts stimulate immune phagocytic cell function and may inhibit Salmonella enteritidis bacteria. The immune response is attributed to active polysaccharide compounds. Others studies show an inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mangostin is a free-radical scavenger and may inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This is a protective factor for the cardiovascular system. Mangosteen may also reduce inflammation.
Concord Grape Fruit Concentrate
Purple grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain similar antioxidant pigments to those found in red grapes. Purple grape juice is shown to protect against many factors involved in cardiovascular disease, including inhibiting platelet function and reducing LDL oxidation. This research is important because these effects are independent of alcohol. Purple and red grapes do not have to be ingested in wine form for one to reap their health benefits.
Red Grape Fruit Concentrate
The typical French diet is often high in fat, but the French have a lower incidence of heart disease. This occurrence is often referred to as the “French Paradox”. The lower rate of heart disease is in part attributed to the frequent consumption of red wines. However, like concord grapes, red grapes do not have to be ingested in wine form for one to reap the health benefits.
Red grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain antioxidant pigments called anthocyanins. Red grapes also contain other phenols and flavonoids. One important polyphenolic compound is resveratrol. Resveratrol is used to help protect against cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries). Resveratrol inhibits platelet aggregation, causes blood vessel dilation and may help lower cholesterol levels. The phenolic compounds in red grapes have antioxidant properties and may inhibit LDL oxidation. Red grapes are higher in antioxidant pigments that offer oxidation protection than white or blush grape varieties.
Blueberry Fruit Concentrate
Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) contain anthocyanin pigments that give blueberries their dark color. These anthocyanins are also responsible for the health benefits associated with blueberries. The USDA Human Nutrition Center ranks blueberries as the number one antioxidant of over 40 fruits and vegetables. Animal research shows that blueberries may have anti-aging potential for the brain. Other information suggests that blueberries may also help vision and cholesterol levels. Blueberry juice has bacteria-fighting properties that work against urinary tract infections. Blueberry compounds may prevent bacteria from adhering to the urinary tract wall.
Red Raspberry Fruit Concentrate
Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) contain very high levels of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid has been proven to be an effective antimutagen, anticarcinogen and inhibitor of abnormal cell proliferation. Like some of the other fruits mentioned, raspberries are also high in anthocyanins. Research has linked anthocyanin activity to improved vision and circulation. It also may help prevent abnormal cell growth and division, slow the aging process and help maintain memory and motor skills.
Red Grapeskin Extract and Grape Seed Extract
Red grapeskin (Vitis vinifera) contains resveratrol as well as anthocyanin compounds. Grape seed is well known for its oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). Proanthocyanidins are many times more powerful than vitamin C or vitamin E in terms of antioxidant protection). Grape seed is used for treating and preventing cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis or venous insufficiency. It is also used to strengthen the blood vessels, improve wound healing, for macular degeneration, poor night vision and inflammation.
Wolfberry Fruit Extract
Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) is also known as lycium. The Chinese have used wolfberry fruit and bark for hundreds of years to strengthen muscles and bone, protect liver function, replenish the vital essence, treat diabetes, prevent aging and improve visual acuity. Disease prevention and longevity may be due to lycium’s immune-enhancing effects as well as its ability to protect against DNA and cellular damage.
Lycium fruits are reported to cause an increase in leukocyte counts, immune cell activity, and nonspecific immunity, and they appear to stimulate tissue development. The polysaccharides, glycoconjugates, flavonoids and phenolic amides appear to have potent antioxidant properties similar to those of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Some of these antioxidants inhibit LDL peroxidation, while others provide a hepatoprotective effect. Research shows that lycium berry helps improve immune function and vision.
Açai Berry Concentrate
Açai (Euterpe oleracea), pronounced ah-sigh-ee, is a small, round, purple fruit that is produced by a certain species of palm tree native to Brazil. Açai is an antioxidant-rich super-food currently considered by many to have the best nutritional value of any fruit on earth. Açai is traditionally used for improving general health and well-being. Açai berries contain protein and fatty acids, as well as vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, thiamine, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus and iron. This fruit is shown to have higher levels of antioxidants than raspberry, cranberry, blackberry, strawberry and blueberry.
Açai contains high amounts of anthocyanins—water-soluble pigment compounds with potent antioxidant actions. Anthocyanins have some of the strongest physiological effects among plant compounds. They may also aid the eyes and improve night vision.
Other beneficial phytochemicals identified in açai fruit include proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids and plant sterols, including beta-sitosterol. Açai fruit has high antioxidant protection against a variety of free radicals, especially for superoxide and peroxyl radicals.
Recent studies demonstrate that antioxidants in açai fruit are able to enter human cells in a fully functional form and neutralize free radicals even at low doses. The antioxidant actions of açai fruit may also protect against abnormal cell growth and division. In a recent study, açai polyphenols were shown to have antiproliferative effects on human leukemia cells.
The antioxidant effects of anthocyanins such as those found in açai fruit are associated with improved cardiovascular health. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation are associated with cardiovascular disease, and preliminary studies indicate that açai fruit decreases lipid peroxidation. Anthocyanins such as those found in açai fruit are known to improve circulation by reducing capillary permeability and increasing the strength of microvessel walls. Plant sterols, such as those found in açai fruit, are used to maintain cholesterol levels already within the normal range, aid the immune system and maintain a healthy prostate function.
Açai fruit may decrease inflammation by inhibiting specific enzymes that are involved in causing inflammation (COX-1 and COX-2). Açai may be helpful for individuals with joint pain and other inflammatory conditions.
Pomegranate Fruit Juice Concentrate
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) contains several types of polyphenols, including anthocyanins, tannins, ellagic acid and gallic acid. Pomegranate juice contains more polyphenols than red wine, grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice and orange juice. The total antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice polyphenols is measured at three times higher than red wine and green tea.
A recent controlled study had patients with heavy arterial plaque buildup drink 8 ounces of pomegranate juice for one year. Over the course of a year, those drinking pomegranate juice, as compared to the control group, had a 30% decrease in the thickness of the carotid artery wall, a decrease in systolic blood pressure, and a decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol) oxidation.
Pomegranate juice neutralizes free radicals, which prevents the LDL cholesterol from being activated into its harmful form, which is deposited in the arteries. These are all factors in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Another study also showed a decrease in blood pressure by reducing the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Reducing ACE activity also reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Pomegranate juice consumption is also associated with an enzyme called paraoxonase (PON). Decreased PON activity is associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis and is seen in hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. Human studies have shown an increase in the activity of PON after drinking pomegranate juice.
Pomegranate contains high amounts of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid is a phenolic compound that has antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant properties. Ellagic acid is proven to be an effective antimutagen, anticarcinogen and may prevent abnormal cell division and proliferation. Animal studies show that ellagic acid helps inhibit tumor growth caused by carcinogens.
Sea Buckthorn Fruit Extract
Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is native to China. It also grows in many European and Asian countries. The Chinese use sea buckthorn for stomach aches. Elsewhere the plant is used for diarrhea, eruptions, lung ailments, scurvy, skin ailments, stomach ache and tumors.
The nutrient-rich berries are used as a supplement source for vitamins C, A and E, as well as for their content of flavonoids, superoxide dismutase, minerals and amino acids. Other components include the carotenoids beta carotene, cryptoxanthin, lycopene and zeaxanthin.
Sea buckthorn has potent antioxidant activity. This is mainly attributed to its vitamin C content and flavonoids. An in vitro study showed that sea buckthorn protected cells from lipid peroxidation through its antioxidant effect. Guarding against lipid peroxidation is one factor that is correlated with anti-atherosclerotic activity.
Sea buckthorn flavonoids were given to patients with ischemic heart disease. Patients taking sea buckthorn showed a decrease in cholesterol level as well as improved cardiac function and fewer anginas.
Sea buckthorn helps the body use oxygen efficiently and increases overall energy. The berries are also used to boost immunity, prevent infections and improve vision. The carotenoid and antioxidant content may be useful in aiding sight in situations such as macular degeneration and night vision. A recent study shows that it may be possible to reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration by adding extra amounts of zeaxanthin to the diet. Other preliminary information points to the usefulness of sea buckthorn seed oil for gastric ulcers, liver protection and skin nourishment.
Green Tea Leaf Extract
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) offers antioxidant protection and cell protection against chromosome damage by reducing oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Green tea may help lower cholesterol levels and protect against heart disease. Several studies link green tea to the prevention of abnormal cell growth and division. Key compounds include several catechins, epigallocatechin-3-gallate being the most notable.
Apple Fruit Extract
Apple fruit extract (Malus domestica) comes from the skin and fruit of immature apples. Processing this material concentrates the amount of polyphenolics, including procyanidins. Procyanidins are a subclass of flavonoids that have attracted attention due to their potential health benefits as powerful antioxidants offering protection for the cardiovascular system as well as other body systems.
The major antioxidant components in apples are more highly concentrated in the skin of the apple than the fruit. These compounds include quercetin glycoside, procyanidin B, phloretin glycoside, chlorogenic acid, and epicatechin. One average apple may contain several hundred milligrams of polyphenolics, which is considerably more than one serving of red wine.
As a way of determining antioxidant strength, NSP measures the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) for the product Thai-Go. In this test, a control called Trolox, a water-soluble derivative of vitamin
E (vitamin E itself is fat soluble, not water soluble), is used as the control standard of antioxidant activity. Ingredients are then tested for antioxidant activity (ORAC) compared to Trolox. One ORAC unit is defined as micromoles of Trolox Equivalence (TE) per gram or liter of the sample.
Brunswick Laboratories of Wareham, Mass. conducted the ORAC assay for Nature’s Sunshine’s Thai-Go. They also compare the Thai-Go to some competitor’s products, mainly XanGo, MangoXan and Tahitian Noni. The results show that Thai-Go has more than twice the antioxidant capacity of XanGo, MangoXan and Tahitian Noni.
Plant polyphenolics are a large class of water-soluble compounds. The most common in foods are polyphenols and flavonoids, which contribute to the color and flavor of many foods. Flavonoids can further be categorized in the classes flavonols, flavones, procyanidins and anthocyanin pigments. Polyphenolics are reported to help prevent diseases such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, nerve degeneration and osteoporosis. Several of the ingredients contain resveratrol and catechins. Methods have been developed to measure total amounts of these specific compounds.